Forschungsprojekt ECOMOD

Referenzgeschäftsprozesse und Strategien im E-Commerce

Forschungsgruppe Unternehmensmodellierung
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(32 entries)

Electronic Procurement
Electronic Procurement includes performing procurement and purchasing processes (and transactions) with the help of electronic networks and the Internet in particular.

In German: Elektronische Beschaffung (ID: 3)

Electronic Data Interchange, the transfer of data between different companies using networks, such as the Internet.

Related terms: EDIFACT

In German: EDI (ID: 54)

EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport), defined and maintained by boards of the United Nations (UN), serves as a standard for the exchange of business documents and messages. Due to the patronage of the UN it is also called UN/EDIFACT. Part of the standard is the detailed syntactical definition of the defined messages.

Related terms: EDI

In German: EDIFACT (ID: 55)


ebXML (Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language) is a modular suite of specifications that enables enterprises of any size and in any geographical location to conduct business over the Internet. The original project (initiated by OASIS) envisioned and delivered five layers of substantive data specification, including XML standards for:
  • Business processes
  • Core data components
  • Collaboration protocol agreements
  • Messaging
  • Registries and repositories

Related terms: XML


In German: ebXML (ID: 57)

XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a simplified subset of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language). It is developed and maintained under the lead-management of the W3C and aims at the description of classes of documents with respect to their distribution on the internet. An XML-description differentiates between structure, information and representation of the documents.

Related terms: SGML, HTML

In German: XML (ID: 58)

XML Schemas express shared vocabularies and allow machines to carry out rules made by people. They provide a means for defining the structure, content and semantics of XML documents.

Related terms: XML

In German: XML-Schema (ID: 59)


Web Server
A web server manages and provides web pages to clients across the Internet or an Intranet. The web server hosts the pages, scripts, programs, and multimedia files and serves them using HTTP, a protocol designed to send files to web browsers and other protocols. A web server's traditional function is to serve static HTML (and more recently XML) pages.

Related terms: XML, HTML

In German: Web-Server (ID: 60)

HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is based on SGML and aims at the publication of hypertext documents on the internet, especially the World Wide Web. Recently HTML is supplemented or succeeded resp. by XML.

Related terms: XML, SGML

In German: HTML (ID: 62)

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) is an international standard for the definition of device-independent, system-independent methods of representing texts in electronic form. HTML as well as XML are based on SGML.

Related terms: HTML, XML

In German: SGML (ID: 61)


Business process model
A business process model is an abstraction of a business process type with a certain purpose frequently - but not necessarily - accompanied by a graphical illustration.

Source(s): Frank, U.; Laak, Bodo van: Anforderungen an Sprachen zur Modellierung von Geschäftsprozessen, Arbeitsberichte des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Universität Koblenz, Nr. 34, 2003

In German: Geschäftsprozessmodell (ID: 43)

Business process
A business process is a recurring sequence of activities following a more or less rigid pattern of rules. A business process is goal-oriented and is directly related to the market oriented value creation of an enterprise. Executing business processes requires the use of scarce resources.

Source(s): Frank, U.; Laak, Bodo van: Anforderungen an Sprachen zur Modellierung von Geschäftsprozessen, Arbeitsberichte des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Universität Koblenz, Nr. 34, 2003

In German: Geschäftsprozess (ID: 42)

Business process type
A business process type describes a class of uniform business processes.

In German: Geschäftsprozesstyp (ID: 44)


Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) denominates trading and performing of business transaction using electronic networks and the Internet in particular. In a broader sense, E-Commerce includes electronically supported communication and interaction with suppliers and customers.

In German: Elektronischer Geschäftsverkehr (ID: 40)

Electronic market place
Electronic markets (or market places) are virtual places that allow an unlimited number of buyers and sellers to trade. Electronic markets can address business-to-business, business-to-consumer, or consumer-to-consumer markets.

Source(s): Fraunhofer (2000): Elektronische Marktplätze

In German: Elektronischer Marktplatz (ID: 31)

Workflow Management System
A Workflow Management System (WfMS) is a system that defines, creates and manages the execution of workflows through the use of software, running on one or more workflow engines, which is able to interpret the process definition, interact with workflow participants and, where required, invoke the use of IT tools and applications.

Related terms: Workflow

Source(s): Workflow Management Coalition Terminology and Glossary – Issue 3.0

In German: Workflow Management System (ID: 63)


Content Management System
A Content Management System (CMS) is a system used to organise and facilitate collaborative content creation. CMSs allow end-users to provide new content in the form of plain text, possibly with markup to indicate where other resources (such as pictures) should be placed. The system then uses rules to style the input, which separates the display from the content.

In German: Content Management System (ID: 64)

A workflow is an abstraction on a business process focussing on the flow of digitalised documents or objects, respectively. Human activities and decisions in the context of business processes are normally left out or taken into account with respect to their interaction with application systems only.

Source(s): Frank, U.; Laak, Bodo van: Anforderungen an Sprachen zur Modellierung von Geschäftsprozessen, Arbeitsberichte des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Universität Koblenz, Nr. 34, 2003

In German: Workflow (ID: 47)

ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) is a term for the broad set of activities supported by multi-module application software (ERP systems) that help an enterprise manage the important parts of its business, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service, and tracking orders among others. ERP systems usually also include application modules for the finance and human resources aspects of a business. As a consequence it is an integrated corporate information system.

In German: ERP (ID: 65)


SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is an open standard invented by Netscape Communications for the secure data transmission on the internet. SSL shall prevent unauthorised access on security relevant information. Thereby a secure electronic payment on the World Wide Web in particular shall be enabled. SSL can also be applied in other areas than online payment. The encryption is based on public keys.

In German: SSL (ID: 66)

Data Warehouse
A Data Warehouse provides a global view on heterogeneous and distributed databases by retrieving the relevant data from data sources and merging them into one consistent database. Therefore the content of the Data Warehouse originates from copying and processing data from different sources. Mostly Data Warehouses serve as a basis for the aggregation of business ratios and the analysis of multi-dimensional matrices (Online Analytical Processing, OLAP). Further on Data Warehouses are often a basis for Data Mining.

In German: Data Warehouse (ID: 68)

PPC (Production Planning and Controlling) deals with operational, temporal, quantitative and spatial planning, managing, controlling and administration of all activities in the production division of a company. A PPC system is a software that assists the user with the task of production planning and controlling. PPS systems are available prefabricated from many vendors or are specifically developed for certain companies. Additionally PPC functionalities are integrated in ERP systems.

Related terms: ERP

In German: PPS (ID: 67)


Buy side software
The term buy side or buy side software is used to denominate software suits for Electronic Commerce on the buyer's side. They usually include electronic product catalogues and purchasing functionality.
Using such a purchasing software has two major advantages:
  • The product catalogues can be specified to include data from various suppliers and in this way better supports employees in the product selection and purchasing process.
  • Furthermore, business rules (e.g. skeleton contracts, authorisation requirements) and processes for procurement and purchasing can be represented by the system independent from individual suppliers.

In German: Buy-Side (ID: 1)

Early discussions on the role of intermediaries in electronic markets focussed on the hypothesis that electronic markets would reduce the amount of - or even eliminate - intermediaries due to decreasing transaction costs. Omission of intermediary levels in the value chain due to direct interaction of producers and consumers is frequently named 'disintermediation'. However, a disintermediation to the extent forecasted could not be observed so far in electronic markets.

Source(s): For further information see e.g.: Giaglis, G. M.; Klein, S.; O'Keefe, R. M. (1999): Disintermediation, Reintermediation, or Cybermediation? The Future of Intermediaries in Electronic Marketplaces, In Proceedings of the 12th International Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, S. 389-407.

In German: Disintermediation (ID: 38)

Sell side software
A sell side software for E-commerce provides the supplier's product catalogue on the Web. For buyers this usually implies the necessity to access various interfaces (systems or Web sites) in order to access the product data of different suppliers. The major advantage of sell side software for E-commerce is the supplier's opportunity to present his products in the best way and to provide additional functionality, such as product configuration and compatibility checking.

In German: Sell-Side (ID: 2)


Electronic product catalogue
Electronic product catalogues are the digital variant of traditional product catalogues providing information on products and prices. Electronic product catalogues can support additional functionality such as automated search or product configuration. Furthermore, electronic product catalogues might provide interfaces which allow access to product and price information through other business application systems. However, it is crucial to consider exchange standards for automated access to product catalogues.

In German: Elektronischer Produktkatalog (ID: 28)

E-shops are selling systems provided by a seller and made accessible to buyers through the Internet and a Web browser. They represent sell-side software with extensive functionality. They generally support searching an electronic product catalogue, collecting products in a shopping cart, and submitting the order electronically. is a successful and prominent example.

In German: E-Shop (ID: 29)

Electronic tendering
Electronic tendering (E-tendering) describes all those tendering processes that support the electronic specification and opening of tenders and/or electronic submission of tenders. This implies some major advantages: Since tendering processes are standardised, transaction costs can be reduced significantly. For minimal additional costs numerous suppliers can be notified of an open tender and it is much easier to compare and evaluate incoming tenders. High volume projects are typical investments where tendering is used as pricing mechanism; the low investments necessary for standardising the tendering process promise quick returns.

Source(s): Fraunhofer (2002): Trendanalyse elektronischer Marktplätze.

In German: Elektronische Ausschreibung (ID: 32)


Development and introduction of successful infrastructures for E-commerce requires the respective transaction partners to communicate and cooperate on different levels. Both partners have to develop a mutual understanding on the relevant business processes crossing the firm's boundaries. This includes assigning certain responsibilities and deploying trust mechanisms. In order to support automation of processes it is crucial to agree on interfaces for the exchange of electronic data. In order to develop infrastructures that can be accessed by all potential business partners it is necessary to agree on standards for such interfaces.

Examples for standardisation initiatives in e-business: ebXML, RosettaNet, BMEcat.


Core process
more precisely: core process type. A core process (type) is a business process type fulfilling the following requirements:
  • It is of vital importance from the customers' view point.
  • It significantly adds to the firm's revenues.
  • Performing this process is part of the firm's core competencies.
A core process type is organised in a way that it allows for sustained differentiation from competitors in a way also appreciated by customers.

Related terms: Business process type

Source(s): Frank, U.; Laak, Bodo van: Anforderungen an Sprachen zur Modellierung von Geschäftsprozessen, Arbeitsberichte des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Universität Koblenz, Nr. 34, 2003

In German: Kernprozess (ID: 46)

Modelling method
A modelling method is a method supporting the development and maintenance of a class of models. In general, it includes one or more modelling languages, a dictionary of project or domain specific roles and resources, a process model (procedure), criteria or metrics for evaluating models as well as examples for application.

Source(s): Frank, U.; Laak, Bodo van: Anforderungen an Sprachen zur Modellierung von Geschäftsprozessen, Arbeitsbericht des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Universität Koblenz, Nr. 34, 2003

In German: Modellierungsmethode (ID: 45)


Workflow model
A workflow model represents a workflow type. The representation should support all concepts required for the intended automation; hence, it can contain aspects that are not represented in the corresponding business process model.

Source(s): Frank, U.; Laak, Bodo van: Anforderungen an Sprachen zur Modellierung von Geschäftsprozessen, Arbeitsberichte des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Universität Koblenz, Nr. 34, 2003

In German: Workflow-Modell (ID: 48)

Workflow type
A workflow type is a class of uniform workflows.

Related terms: Workflow

Source(s): Frank, U.; Laak, Bodo van: Anforderungen an Sprachen zur Modellierung von Geschäftsprozessen, Arbeitsberichte des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Universität Koblenz, Nr. 34, 2003

In German: Workflow-Typ (ID: 49)